Don’t even think about turning. Just turn your head or your body and let the plan come along for the ride. When you take aim, fly the bullet into position.! Rem Koolhaas: Conversations with Students
Give up normal life.
Live architect’s life which is only and all about architecture.
If you don’t live like that,
You never become a genuine architect.
Give up it, if you want to keep it.
Mimesis (Ancient Greek: μίμησις (mīmēsis), from μιμεῖσθαι (mīmeisthai), “to imitate,” from μῖμος (mimos), “imitator, actor”) is a critical and philosophical term that carries a wide range of meanings, which include imitation, representation, mimicry, imitatio, receptivity, nonsensuous similarity, the act of resembling, the act of expression, and the presentation of the self.
In ancient Greece, mimesis was an idea that governed the creation of works of art, in particular, with correspondence to the physical world understood as a model for beauty, truth and the good. Plato contrasted mimesis, or imitation, with diegesis, or narrative. After Plato, the meaning of mimesis eventually shifted toward a specifically literary function in ancient Greek society, and its use has changed and been re-interpreted many times since then.
One of the best-known modern studies of mimesis, understood as a form of realism in the arts, is Erich Auerbach’s Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature. Published in 1946 and written while the author was in exile from Nazi Germany, the book opens with a famous comparison between the way the world is represented in Homer’s Odyssey and the way it appears in the Bible. From these two seminal Western texts, Auerbach builds the foundation for a unified theory of representation that spans the entire history of Western literature, including the Modernist novels being written at the time Auerbach began his study.
The Frankfurt school critical theorist T.W. Adorno made use of mimesis as a central philosophical term, interpreting it as a way in which works of art embodied a form of reason that was non-repressive and non-violent.
Both Plato and Aristotle saw in mimesis the representation of nature. Plato wrote about mimesis in both Ion and The Republic (Books II, III and X). In Ion, he states that poetry is the art of divine madness, or inspiration. Because the poet is subject to this divine madness, it is not his/her function to convey the truth. As Plato has it, truth is the concern of the philosopher only. As culture in those days did not consist in the solitary reading of books, but in the listening to performances, the recitals of orators (and poets), or the acting out by classical actors of tragedy, Plato maintained in his critique that theatre was not sufficient in conveying the truth. He was concerned that actors or orators were thus able to persuade an audience by rhetoric rather than by telling the truth.
In Book II of The Republic, Plato describes Socrates’ dialogue with his pupils. Socrates warns we should not seriously regard poetry as being capable of attaining the truth and that we who listen to poetry should be on our guard against its seductions, since the poet has no place in our idea of God.
In developing this in Book X, Plato tells of Socrates’ metaphor of the three beds: one bed exists as an idea made by God (the Platonic ideal); one is made by the carpenter, in imitation of God’s idea; one is made by the artist in imitation of the carpenter’s.
So the artist’s bed is twice removed from the truth. The copiers only touch on a small part of things as they really are, where a bed may appear differently from various points of view, looked at obliquely or directly, or differently again in a mirror. So painters or poets, though they may paint or describe a carpenter or any other maker of things, know nothing of the carpenter’s (the craftsman’s) art, and though the better painters or poets they are, the more faithfully their works of art will resemble the reality of the carpenter making a bed, nonetheless the imitators will still not attain the truth (of God’s creation).
The poets, beginning with Homer, far from improving and educating humanity, do not possess the knowledge of craftsmen and are mere imitators who copy again and again images of virtue and rhapsodise about them, but never reach the truth in the way the superior philosophers do.
! The society of Spectacle_Guy Debord_1967
J.R. Eyerman’s peek inside the opening-night screening of Bwana Devil, the first full-length color 3-D feature, certainly is peculiar: Men and women, young and old all angle in the same direction, formally dressed but for those silly specs over their eyes.
Funny as it is, with the audience members coming off like clones of an alien species, there’s also prescience in the photo — not just about the emergence of special effects in cinema but also, on a deeper level, about the hypnotizing nature of our entertainment.
(see more iconic LIFE photos here)
The historian of science Thomas Kuhn gave paradigm its contemporary meaning when he adopted the word to refer to the set of practices that define a scientific discipline at any particular period of time. Kuhn himself came to prefer the terms exemplar and normal science, which have more precise philosophical meanings. However in his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions Kuhn defines a scientific paradigm as: “universally recognized scientific achievements that, for a time, provide model problems and solutions for a community of researchers”, i.e.,
Monica Bonvicini. Architecture is the Ultimate Erotic Art Carry it to Excess, 2006.
Episteme, as distinguished from techne, is etymologically derived from the Greek word ἐπιστήμη for knowledge orscience, which comes from the verb ἐπίσταμαι, “to know”. In Plato’s terminology episteme means knowledge, as in “justified true belief”, in contrast to doxa, common belief or opinion. The word epistemology, meaning the study of knowledge, is derived from episteme.
For Plato and Aristotle episteme was a concept for universal knowledge that is true by necessity. In this sense, the objects of episteme cannot change. For Plato, these objects exists in the world of ideas. For Aristotle, episteme is the result of logical reasoning through syllogism. In contrast to the certain knowledge of episteme, doxa can be true in some cases but false in others.